Sunday, May 08, 2022 08:30 [IST]
Last Update: Sunday, May 08, 2022 02:58 [IST]
Bovine mastitis is an inflammatory response of the udder tissue in the mammary gland caused due to physical trauma or microorganism infections. It is considered the most common disease leading to economic loss in dairy industries due to reduced yield and poor quality of milk.
The situation will deteriorate if livestock farmers are not trained to sdetect the progression of the infection. The study, titled ‘Milk protein for the progression of bovine mastitis disease’, estimates that the nearly 70 per cent loss incurred in milk production due to the infection costs the country over Rs 7,165 crore annually.
What Causes Mastitis in Cows?
• There is a large cohort of microorganism species that are known to cause mastitis. These range from virus, mycoplasma, fungus and bacteria.
• Bacterial organisms known to cause mastitis are Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus; Str. Zooepidemicus; Str. agalactiae; Str. pyogenes; Str. faecalis; Mycobacterium bovis; Klebsiella spp; Brucella abortus; Pseudomonas pyocyaneus; E.coli; Leptospira Pomona, etc.
• Fungal entities responsible for mastitis are Aspergillus fumigatus; A.midulus; Candida spp; Trichosporon spp, etc.
• Physical injury to the mammary region, poor hygiene and/or trauma, also cause this condition.
How Does Mastitis Affect Milk Production?
Mastitis can be associated with a fall in milk yield. This can be a result of incomplete milking of the infected quarter(s) due to discomfort or blockages, or damage to milk secreting tissue caused by the infection. The reduction in yield may be temporary or permanent.
The steep rise in bovine mastitis, a disease in which blood gets mixed with milk, is responsible for nearly 70 per cent of the losses in milk production in India and also poses a significant public health risk, says a study.
Signs of Mastitis in Cows
• The udder such as swelling, heat, hardness, redness, or pain.
• The milk such as a watery appearance, flakes, clots, or pus.
• A reduction in milk yield.
• An increase in body temperature.
• The lack of appetite.
• Sunken eyes.
• Signs of diarrhoea and dehydration.
• A reduction in mobility, due to the pain of a swollen udder or simply due to feeling unwell.
Tests to diagnose Mastitis in cows
• Fore-stripping (also known as foremilk stripping) is an effective way to detect clinical mastitis. It is carried out by hand milking a few squirts onto a suitable dark surface. This will allow any signs of infection to be spotted, such as discolouration, clots, flakes, stringiness or watery secretions.
• The California Mastitis Test (CMT) is a diagnostic tool to aid in the quick diagnosis of mastitis in dairy cows, and for an udder health management program. The CMT is performed to; ? Detect the presence of subclinical infections at the beginning of or during lactation as part of an udder health management program.
Prevention Of Mastitis
• Provide clean, dry and adequate bedding for cows to lie.
• Cows should be clean while entering the milking area.
• Use different cloth or paper towel for cleaning the teats on each cow.
• Teats should be completely dry and clean before milking.
• Use germicidal teat dips after milking.
• Feed the cows after milking so that they don’t lie down immediately. This prevents the entry of microorganisms into teat canals that are still open from milking.
• While milking the herd, strict attention must be paid to first milking healthy, non-infected cows and subsequently those infected.
Treatment Of Mastitis
• First aid once mastitis has been detected involves applying ice cubes on the udder surface. The infected milk from infested teat should be drained out thrice a day and safely disposed. A composition of 5% phenol can be included to the infected milk to ensure hygienic disposal.
• The infected and non-responsive quarter should be dried up, permanently. Calves should be prevented from suckling on the infected teat. A certified veterinary doctor must be consulted, and a course of antibiotic treatment must commence immediately.
• The drugs considered include the more common penicillins, aminoglycosides and macrolides; oxytetracyline, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, and several sulphonamides.
• Dolisovet (Belladonna 1dH, Calendula MT, Echinacea 1dH, Dulcamara 1cH) a homeopathic medicine, licensed in France and indicated for the restoration of mammary function in cows is presented as a 10 g tube of ointment for intramammary use.